Hypercalcemia

Hypercalcemia is a common condition with variable symptoms and causes

Symptoms of Hypercalcemia

Hypercalcemia is defined as an ionized or regular blood calcium concentration greater than the laboratory range.  Regardless of the cause the symptoms of hypercalcemia are the same.  The symptoms are variable and range from few if any symptoms all the way to confusion and coma. The higher the calcium  level the more symptoms may occur, and the type of symptoms depend on the organ system affected. 
 Neurologic Anxiety, depression, confusion, coma
 Gastrointestinal Constipation, weight loss, nausea, stomach ulcers
 Kidney Increased urination, kidney stones, poor kidney function
 Cardiovascular Hypertension
 SkeletalWeakness,  bone pain


Causes of Hypercalcemia

Hypercalcemia is either caused by parathyroid hormone dependent or parathyroid independent conditions. Here is a list of conditions that can cause high calcium levels. 90% of the causes of hypercalcemia are either due to hyperparathyroidism or hypercalcemia due to certain types of malignancies. The treatment for hypercalcemia depends on the exact cause and so the diagnostic approach is very important. Each condition below has very different treatment approaches. Your endocrinologist will perform the proper workup to diagnose the correct condition.

 PTH Related PTH independent
Hyperparathyroidism
    Familial and sporadic
Hypercalcemia of malignancy
Vitamin D excess ingestion
Sarcoidosis
Certain prescribed medications
Hyperthyroidism
Acromegaly
Pheochromocytoma
Immobilization
Adrenal insufficiency
Excess calcium intake