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Overview of Diabetes Mellitus type 2 and Diabetes Mellitus type 1

In order to understand diabetes mellitus, the normal processing of glucose needs to be be understood. This section will give an overview. Diabetes mellitus type 1 and type 2 are the two most common forms of diabetes. All forms of diabetes mellitus result in elevated blood sugar concentrations.  Let the endocrinologists at Houston Thyroid and Endocrine help you control your blood sugars. 


There are many symptoms of diabetes mellitus which are categorized as short-term and long-term side-effects to the body from having uncontrolled blood sugars.  The long-term side-effects are called microvascular (small blood vessel) and 
macrovascular (large blood vessel) complications. The microvascular diseases that are directly related to the degree and duration of blood sugar elevation include retinopathy (leads to blindness), nephropathy (leads to kidney failure), and neuropathy (leads to amputations, gastroparesis). Patients with diabetes mellitus also have a much increased risk of macrovascular diseases such as of blockages of coronary arteries, heart attacks, peripheral vascular disease, and stroke. 

Diabetes causes

There are a number of causes of diabetes mellitus, There are two basic reasons for why blood sugars rise in type 2 diabetes: Insulin resistance and then with eventual insulin deficiency over time. Most patients with type  2 diabetes have already lost half of their pancreatic beta cell function by the time their diabetes is diagnosed. Type 1 diabetic patients and those with primary pancreatic disease, the problem is mainly a lack of insulin production which occurs suddenly usually. 

Diabetes treatments

If lifestyle and diet changes do not improve blood sugars then antihyperglycemic medications are necessary to prevent the microvascular and macrovascular complications of diabetes mellitus.  The goal of treatment is to reduce the likelyhood of diabetes-related-complications. 

Services offered

Houston Thyroid and Endocrine offer our expertise in insulin pump management, oral medications for diabetes, and use of any type of insulin. We can perform continuous glucose monitor testing. We have access to top diabetes educators.